Home > Nursing > Leadership > Leadership and Strategic Planning in Healthcare

Leadership and Strategic Planning in Healthcare

Subject: Nursing
Number of words/pages: 4857 words/21 pages
Download for free
This essay sample was donated by a student to help the academic community

Section A – Leadership Approaches in the Case Study

Question 1 – Leadership Approaches of one of the Key Actors

The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2015) highlights that nurses are mandated to deliver patient-centred care based on available evidence-based best practices in the healthcare industry. In this context of evidence-based best practices, NMC (2015) expects nurses to make continuous changes to healthcare services delivery practices and processes to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare services delivery in hospital settings. Importantly, nursing leaders are expected to lead changes in healthcare organizations. Implementing change in healthcare organization often encounters numerous barriers and resistances from multidisciplinary stakeholders including nurses, physicians, and social services workers. Therefore, nursing leaders tasked with implementing changes in healthcare organization must utilize leadership approaches that would cause limited resistance to change and yield the expected objectives of change implementation. This paper examines the role of Sue Green as a leader in the case study on “Leading Organizational Change: Improving Hospital Performance” to evaluate how leaders in practical healthcare settings utilize various theoretical approaches during change implementation.

How much time do you waste writing an essay?
Get it done in 1 hour with us.
Get help
MSN & DNP experts
100% plagiarism-free
Money-back guarantee

The Leadership Role of Sue Green at King Edgar Hospitals NHS Trust

Sue Green is one of the three Assistant Directors of Nursing at King Edgar Hospitals NHS Trust. The King Edgar Hospitals NHS Trust comprises of three hospitals including Clover Hospital, Friar Hospital, and Bronte Hospital, and Green was specifically placed as the Assistant Director of Nursing at Clover Hospital. Green was recruited into the Assistant Director’s position in October 2002 by Tracey Burns, the Executive Director of Nursing at the NHS Trust. Immediately following the recruitment, Green was tasked with working with key stakeholders within the Clover Hospital and the NHS Trust to address the problem of delays in discharge at the NHS Trust. Sue Green’s role in leadership involved relying on evidence-based best practices and improving partnership with all relevant stakeholders to implement an effective and timely discharge plan at the NHS Trust.

How much time do you waste writing an essay?
Get it done in 1 hour with us.
Get help
MSN & DNP experts
100% plagiarism-free
Money-back guarantee

Evaluation of Green’s Leadership Approaches using relevant Leadership Models and Theories

Al-Sawai (2013) described that leaders in the healthcare industry could implement changes effectively by building relationships and supporting all the multidisciplinary stakeholders to work collectively towards common goals. Mitchell (2013) highlighted that healthcare systems comprise of numerous stakeholders with non-linear interactions and with multidirectional goals. The stakeholders comprise of multi-professional groups including physicians, nurses, surgeons, and agents from the Social Services departments. Most of these stakeholders may either accept or resist proposed changes. Thus, Al-Sawai (2013) examined that leaders in healthcare settings must address the diversity of the stakeholders by adopting leadership approaches including but not limited to transformational leadership, Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence style, collaborative leadership, and the situational leadership approach.

Situational Leadership

Lynch, McCormack, and McCance (2011) described situational leadership as a task-oriented approach to leading change that involves adapting a change strategy to the prevailing circumstances that characterize immediate satiations in organizational settings. Lynch, McCormack, and McCance (2011) described that the Situational leadership Theory (SLT) as developed by Hershet and Brabchard (1969) require leaders to flexibly adapt their leadership responses based on the rational understanding of the immediate satiations. Based on the case study, Sue Green utilized situational leadership approach when she adopted the ‘point prevalence’ technique to determine the actual bed occupancy in the hospital’s wards and the expected dates of discharge for each patient. In this context, Green sought to gain a rational perception of the situation in the wards by collecting data from each ward and utilizing the data to determine the actual causes of delays in discharge at the NHS Trust. Therefore, the situational leadership approach utilized by Green enabled her to provide results-informed interventions including creating the new position of a ‘Discharge Manager’ to coordinate the overall discharge process and reduce delays in patient discharge.

Transactional and Transformational Leadership

Besides the situational leadership approach, Green also utilized the transactional and the transformational leadership styles. According to Huston and Marquis (2009), the transactional leadership style is characterized by contractual exchanges between the leaders and the followers whereby leaders create goals for the followers and the followers pursue the goals in a manner that safeguard their self-interests and minimize their work-related anxieties. Transactional leadership approach is suitable for use in change-related situations where short-term goals can be achieved through mutually-beneficial transactions between the leaders and their followers. The transactional leadership style seemed appropriate in the case of the King Edgar Hospitals NHS Trust because leaders at the NHS Trust were concerned with the short-term goal of retaining their ‘One Star’ status after each periodic review from the regulatory authorities.

Collaborative Leadership

Green also utilized collaborative and democratic leadership approaches to bring in the key stakeholders to buy in on the need to adopt the nurse-led discharge at the King Edgar Hospitals NHS Trust. Raelin (2016) described that democratic leadership allows stakeholders to make contributions during decision-making. Also, Al-Sawai (2013) explained that the collaborative leadership style involves providing the necessary information to relevant stakeholders and allowing the stakeholders to make informed decisions. Notably, Mitchell (2013) described that the democratic or the collaborative leadership style encourages dialogue and shared decision-making between the stakeholders, though the leader still retains the role of providing the overall direction regarding the desired change. Mitchell (2013) summarized that the democratic leadership style is useful when co-ordination among multidisciplinary groups is necessary for effective implementation of change in organizational settings.

Goleman’s 6 Styles of Leadership

Furthermore, Green demonstrated sufficient emotional intelligence that enabled her to shift from one style of leadership to another whenever the situations changed throughout the change implementation process. Desanghere, Saxena, Stobart and Walker (2017) explained that Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability for a leader to monitor and understand the thoughts and feelings of the followers. Subsequently, the emotionally intelligent leaders can use the information regarding the feelings and thoughts of the followers to inform the most appropriate courses of action for every leadership context. Desanghere et al (2017) described that Goleman’s work on the six leadership styles including visionary, authoritative, coaching, affiliation, democratic, and commanding emphasized on the centrality of emotional intelligence in informing leaders on when to adopt each or a combination of the six leadership styles to specific circumstances during change implementation.

Question 2 – What I would have done differently if I were Tracey Burns

Primarily, Tracey burns nurtured plans to introduce nurse-led discharges at King Edgar Hospitals NHS Trust by implementing changes that would saw the nurses are taking over the responsibility of patient discharges from the specialist physicians. However, the plan by Burns to transfer the responsibility of the discharge process form the medical team to the nursing department was doomed to fail from the start because Burns failed to collaborate with the medical director at the NHS Trust to ensure that the physicians approved the transfer of their traditional duties to the nurses. Burns realized that her attempt to empower the nurses within the NHS Trust had initiated widespread anxieties and change fatigue. The fatigue and the anxieties were worsened by the fact that Burns, in coalition with the general managers of the three hospitals under the NHS Trust, had failed to inform the physicians about the impending changes in the discharge process. Therefore, Burns’ failure to implement the changes on the discharge process successfully and the eventual downgrading of the NHS Trust to a ‘zero star’ health care organization was attributable to lack of interprofessional collaborative leadership on Burns’ side.

Section B – Evaluating the Formulation and Implementation of a Strategic Plan

The healthcare industry is dynamic whereby the needs and the expectations of the healthcare services users change progressively while the tools and processes available to meet the progressive expectations of the users also evolve. Therefore, healthcare organizations must continually plan for the future by developing strategic plans that are intended to address the anticipated changes in the future of the healthcare industry. Strategic health planning involves creating objectives that a healthcare organization would like to achieve in the future and subsequently developing specific operating structures and courses of actions intended to help the healthcare organization to achieve the future objectives. Importantly, developing future objectives and selecting the structures and activities necessary to achieve the objectives is informed by factors that are located both inside and outside a healthcare organization. This section utilizes the 2014-2019 Strategic Plans for Guy’s & St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust to examine the formulation and implementation of strategic plans in practical contexts and to analyse the internal and external factors that influence the formulation and implementation of strategic plans in healthcare organizations.

Guy’s & St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust – The 2014-2019 Strategic Plan

Guy’s & St. Thomas’ Trust is one of the leading healthcare organizations in the UK.  Guy’s & St. Thomas’ provides a wide range of healthcare services including emergency, adult and children specialist, elective, and community services in and around London and the greater southern England (Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, 2018). Guy’s & St. Thomas’ Trust has over 1,000 inpatient beds and employs over 13,500 staff plus over 2000 trainee health professionals. Guy’s & St. Thomas’ Trust earned annual revenues worth £ 1.2 billion in 2017, and the Trust continues to partner with strategic stakeholders including research organizations, volunteer sectors, and social care providers to not only deliver high-quality healthcare services but to also increase its income and remain financially sustainable into the foreseeable future (Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust). Thus, the 2014-2019 Strategic Plan for Guy’s & St. Thomas’ Trust describes key activities that would enable the NHS Trust to deliver high-quality healthcare services amidst the rising demand for healthcare in southern England and to remain financially sustainable amidst the funding shortfalls within the National Health Services sector.

Formulation and Implementation of Strategic Plans in Healthcare Organizations

Speziale (2015) described that healthcare organizations were increasingly facing challenges related to two factors including the difficulty in satisfying the progressive needs and expectations of the increasingly ‘aware’ users, and the need to keep pace with the rapid and complex changes in processes and procedures used in the delivery of healthcare services. According to Ginter (2013), these challenges related to the progressive needs of users and the evolution of healthcare delivery processes and procedures are necessitated by the progressively evolving definition of quality and safe healthcare services that place patients at the centre of care plans. Speziale (2015) explained that healthcare organizations must continually devise plans on how to offer maximum value to the users of healthcare services and the lowest cost possible. Thus, strategic planning in healthcare contexts entails continuously realigning the mission, vision, values, and objectives of a healthcare organization to the needs of the healthcare services users and the tools and processes available to meet the needs of the users.

Mission, Vision, Values, and Objectives of Guy’s & St. Thomas’ Trust

The mission for Guy’s & St. Thomas’ Trust as specified in the Strategic Plan is to, “Provide world-class clinical care, education and research that improve the health of the local community and the wider populations that we serve” (Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust). Evidently, the mission statement for Guy’s & St. Thomas’ Trust indicates the shift of users’ expectations from a hospital being a ‘treatment’ facility to a hospital being a key stakeholder in ensuring the health and well-being of the local community. Bjegovic et al. (2015) explained that a strategic mission within a healthcare organization should capture the future anticipations of the service users and indicate the intentions of a healthcare organization to meet the anticipations of the users. In its mission statement, Guy’s & St. Thomas’ Trust indicates that it plans to improve the health of the community by not only providing clinical care but by also relying on education and research to develop world-class processes of improving the health of the society. Therefore, the mission of Guy’s & St. Thomas’ highlights the centrality of users’ expectations in the formulation of a strategic framework.

Factors influencing the Formulation and Implementation of Strategic Plans

The specific objectives of a health strategy are intended to address the prevailing and anticipated dynamics within a healthcare industry. Therefore, the objectives including building partnerships and efficient utilization of resources specified in the strategic plan of Guy’s & St. Thomas’ Trust reflect the prevailing or the anticipated happenings within the internal and the external environments of the Guy’s & St. Thomas’ NHS Trust. Four key strategic plans for Guy’s & St. Thomas’ Trust include to transform care delivery systems, enhance research and development, promote education and training of personnel, and to improve partnership working.

Influential Factors in the Internal Environment: SWOT Analysis of Guy’s & St. Thomas’

Key strengths at Guy’s & St. Thomas’ include a highly motivated staff, efficient financial and operational performances, wide portfolio of healthcare services, and strong partnerships with academic and research institutions. In regards to these strengths, Guy’s & St. Thomas’ plans to sustain the high motivation among its staff by providing training and development opportunities for its clinical and non-clinical personnel. Also, the NHS Trust plans to leverage its efficient performances further by partnering with organizations including volunteering partners willing to provide free services to reduce labour costs at the Trust.

Influential Factors in the External Environment: PESTLE Analysis

The 2014-2019 strategic plan for Guy’s & St. Thomas’ was informed by political factors including changing political leadership in the UK including the pre and post-Brexit implications that may shift the healthcare agenda and priorities of politicians; hence, affecting the capacity for Guy’s & St. Thomas’ to work with overseas partners. Thus, Guy’s & St. Thomas’ strategized to increase local partnerships.

In conclusion, the five-year strategic plan for Guy’s & St. Thomas’ Trust indicates the central role played by both internal and external environmental factors in influencing the formulation and implementation of strategic objectives in healthcare organizations. Internal factors including the availability of resources and the efficiency of services delivery processes influence the types of courses of actions to be included in a strategic plan. Similarly, external factors like reduced funding from the national government will inform the inclusion of strategic courses of actions necessary to safeguard the financial sustainability of a healthcare organization in times of funding reductions. Overall, the formulation and implementation of strategic plans in the healthcare industry is guided by the anticipated changes in the expectations of the healthcare services users and the evolution of mechanisms and tools for delivery of healthcare services globally.

1. Al-Sawai, A. 2013, ‘leadership of healthcare professionals: where do we stand? Oman Medical Journal, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 285-287

2. Bosch, B and Mansell, H. 2015, ‘Interprofessional collaboration in healthcare, Canadian Pharmacists Journal, vol. 148, no. 4, pp. 176-179

3. Desanghere, L., Saxena, A., STobart, K and Walker, K. 2017, ‘Goleman’s leadership styles at different hierarchical levels in medical education,’ MBC Medical Education,’ vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1-9

4. Dorgham, S and Mahmoud, S. 2013, ‘leadership styles and clinical decision making autonomy among critical care nurses: a comparative study,’ IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 71-83

5. Huston, J and Marquis, B. 2009, leadership roles and management functions in nursing: theory and application, London: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

6. Isola, A., Laukkala, H., Paasivaara, L., Suhonen, M and Vesterinen, S. 2013, ‘nurse manager’s perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and skills in these areas – A viewpoint: Case of health centre wards in Finland,’ ISRN Nursing, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 44-56

7. Lynch, B., McCormack, B and McCance, T. 2011, ‘development of a model of situational leadership in residential care for older people,’ Journal of Nursing Management, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1058-1069

8. Mitchell, G. 2013, ‘selecting the best theory to implement planned change,’ Nursing Management, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 32-37

9. Nester, J. 2016, ‘the importance of interprofessional practice and education in the era of accountable care,’ North Caroline Medical Journal, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 128-132

10. Raelin, J. A. 2016, leadership-as practice: theory and application, Pittsburgh: Routledge

Trusted service for any writing challenge
Hire a verified nursing expert & get an original essay that will pass Turnitin.