How SARS is Different From HIV
Mode of Transmission
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by acoronavirus called SARS- associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The SARS virus is airborne, meaning that it is transmitted in the same way as flu and colds. The virus is transmitted when an infected person sneezes or coughs small droplets of saliva into the air. Droplet spread can occur when droplets from the sneeze or cough of an infected individual are impelled a short distance via the air and placed on mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth of people who are nearby. Additionally, the virus can be transmitted when an individual touches an object or surface that is contaminated with the infectious droplets and then puts his or her hand in the eyes, mouth or nose (Donnelly et al, 2008).
The time amid exposure to SARS-CoV and onset of symptoms is known as the incubation period. SARS incubation period is usually two to seven days, though in some instances it might be ten days. People with SARS are highly likely to be contagious merely if they display symptoms like cough and fever (Donnelly et al, 2008). HIV is transmitted through bodily fluids such as blood, breast milk, vaginal fluids and semen of the infected person. The virus is only transmissible if the fluids come in contact with a damaged tissue, mucous membrane or directly injected into bloodstream. The earliest signs of an HIV infection usually happen between two to four weeks after a person is infected (Volberding, 2008).
Strategies for Prevention
SARS can be prevented through a combination of control measures, entailing shortening the duration from onset of symptoms to isolation of the infected persons, efficient contact tracing and quarantine of exposed individuals. In the absence of a SARS vaccine, the most efficient way of controlling a viral disease like SARS is to breakdown the chain of transmission from infected persons to health persons. SARS is transmitted when a healthy persons comes into contact with infected droplets from coughs or sneezes of an infected person (Donnelly et al, 2008).
Case detection, isolation of patient and contact tracing can minimize the number of individuals exposed to every infectious case and ultimately breakdown the transmission chain. Combined, these strategies limit the number of contacts probable for every potentially infectious case. Additionally, they shorten the time that lapses amid the onset of infection and quarantine of the patient, therefore minimizing the chances for the transmission of the virus (Seto et al, 2010).HIV can be prevented through use of condoms during sex, avoiding sharing injecting equipment and use of medicines Post-exposure prophylaxis and to prevent transmission of the virus from mother to child((Volberding, 2008).
Resources and Involvement of Global Community
World health organization (WHO) is deeply involved in prevention of SARS. WHO has recommended that worldwide surveillance goes on and that suspected incidents are reported to national health authorities. The global health body urges health authorities across nations to stay vigilant for suspected cases and follow commended protective measures. People with SARS must be isolated and taken care of utilizing barrier nursing methods and offered with symptomatic treatment (Seto et al, 2010).
The HIV epidemic has highlighted the international nature of human welfare and health and led to a trend toward discovering common solutions to international health challenges. Several global funds have been established in recent periods to address international health challenges like HIV. Nevertheless, the rates of infection and prevalence of HIV continue to intensify worldwide (Coovadia & Hadingham, 2010).
1. Coovadia, H., & Hadingham, J. (2010).HIV/AIDS: global trends, global funds and delivery bottlenecks. Globalization and Health, 1, 1-13.
2. Donnelly A., Ghani, C, Leung, M et al. (2008). Epidemiological determinants of spread of causal agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong. Lancet, 361(9371), 1761-6.
3. Seto, H., Tsang D., Yung R, et al. (2010) Effectiveness of precautions against droplets and contact in prevention of nosocomial transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Lancet, 361 (9368), 1519-20.
4. Volberding, P.(2008). Global HIV/ AIDS Medicine. New York: Elsevier Health Sciences
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