Sexually Transmitted Infection Case Study
Discuss the Relevant Assessments Required for the Patient in the Selected Case Study
It is important for the healthcare team to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the patient. Particularly, the healthcare team needs to obtain adequate data from the patient. The patient has presented a case of inflamed lesions on his penis. The assessment process should involve a brief sexual history of the patient, a physical examination, as well as a laboratory testing (Bullock., Shane., & Hales., 2012). The assessment process should yield both subjective and objective data that will help in the diagnosis of the patient’s condition. Obtaining a brief history of the patient’s sex life serves to provide subjective data. The healthcare team should make inquiries concerning the patient’s sexual experiences, the number of partners, and determination of whether the patient has been practising safe sex. It is imperative for the patient to provide information on the last sexual experiences and highlight when the symptoms presented started (Bullock. & Manias., 2016). The brief sexual history should also highlight whether the patient has been treated for sexually transmitted diseases in the past. Such questions can help the healthcare team to establish a deeper understanding of the patient’s sexual health and practices. The emphasis should be on the number of partners and their health, the specific health practices, any protection from sexually transmitted infections, as well as the patient’s history of having a sexually transmitted infection.
It is imperative for the healthcare team to determine the period and nature of relationships that the patient has been having. Such questions help in the identification of the partner’s risk factors that may be relevant to the patient’s case. The focus on the number of partners should feature the last few months as well as a consideration of the past12 months. Understanding the sexual practices of a patient helps the healthcare team to gain a deeper knowledge of the required specimens and the risks that the patient faces (McKenna & Mirkov, 2012). Notably, it is important to establish whether a patient has been having genital or oral sex, an aspect that helps in the diagnosis of the condition. Additionally, there is a need to make inquiries concerning the patient’s symptoms and for how long they have lasted. Other important questions to consider during the assessment include the determination of whether the patient has been using drugs during the injections. If the patient has been treated for sexually transmitted diseases in the past, the healthcare team should specifically identify the previous infections. A laboratory testing is of critical importance in the diagnosis (Yarbrough & Burnham, 2016). For this reason, the healthcare team needs to conduct a culture for the herpes virus based on the symptoms presented. The diagnostic test will present objective data that will determine the cause of the infection. Other sources of objective data include the evidence of scratching or abrasions on the penis as well as sores in the mouth. It is possible to obtain the objective data through physical examination of the mouth and the genitalia.
Discuss the Role of the Sexual Health Team Members Involved in the Care of the Case Study
The sexual health team members have a critical role to play in Justin’s case. Specifically, the sexual health team members must lay their role in rigorously assessing the condition of the patient. Sexual health team members must take up their responsibility in ensuring that they understand Justin’s sexual history and some of the risks to which he has been exposed (Peate, 2013). They must understand the symptoms presented and ensure that they conduct a successful diagnosis to identify the cause of the infection. The process of patient assessment is of critical importance because it helps in identifying the unique needs of the patient. There is a need to conduct a comprehensive assessment that can help the sexual health team members to establish a connection between the patient’s sexual life and the symptoms presented (Scipio, 2006). Moreover, the sexual health team members must play the important role of providing education and counselling after his diagnostic and physical examinations.
The diagnostic test helps the sexual health team members to identify the cause of the infection. Additionally, the team members should conduct a differential diagnosis that helps in accurately identifying the cause of Justin’s infection. The sexual health team members must carry out health promotion practices such as identifying the patient’s risks and providing education and effective intervention strategies on how to reduce the risks (Yarbrough & Burnham, 2016). Health promotion practices should focus on providing the patient with both knowledge and skills on how to practice safe sex and reduce the risk of infection. It is evident that Justin does not recognise the risks to which he is exposed through his sexual behaviours. For this reason, it is the role of the health care team to provide him with a critical understanding of the risks of infection associated with specific sexual practices. The sexual healthcare team has a role in empowering the patient to make informed decisions concerning his sexual health (Bullock. & Manias, 2016). There is evidence that the patient has been reckless with little consideration of sexual health and that of his partners. For this reason, the sexual health team members must empower him to understand some of the critical consideration and safe practices that can enable him to have a healthier sex life.
Outline the Education Needs of the Patient Within the Case Study
The education needed for the patient will include:
1. Informing the patient about the disease and seeing what the patient’s level of understanding regarding the disease is. If the patient lacks knowledge about the disease, providing a thorough explanation is necessary and if needed reading materials to follow. An explanation would include informing the patient about what an STI is, especially about genital herpes. For example, explaining that sexually transmitted disease (STI) can be acquired through coitus. STIs can be bacterial or viral. In the case of this patient, he acquired a viral STI called genital herpes. Which generally start as lesions on the genitalia. The Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 or 2 causes genital herpes. HSV 1 and HSV 2 both produce the same symptoms. Type 1 commonly infects the lips and caused cold sores, but it can also cause genital herpes; type 2 is commonly responsible for causing genital herpes (Bullock. & Manias, 2016).
2. Explain the symptoms – after an average of six to eight days’ signs and symptoms can disappear (Bullock & Hales, 2012). Justin needs to understand how the specific signs and symptoms of the infection appear and disappear so that he can be informed concerning a recurrence of the infection in the future. Understanding the symptoms of an infection empowers patients to seek treatment before the infection becomes critical. For this reason, the patient requires adequate knowledge concerning the progression of the symptoms from the first day of infection to the recovery of the infection.
3. Explaining the precautions to take, for example voiding after sexual intercourse and washing genitalia and surrounding area. This will help to flush out some organisms and reduce the occurrence of infection. Using condoms, the patient should be advised that proper use of condoms provide a highly effective mechanical barrier to infections. The condom should be undamaged and correctly in place throughout all phases of sexual activity. Being monogamous, reducing the number of people the patient has will reduce the spread of infection. Encouraging the patient to ask his potential partners about their sexual history. Avoiding coitus with partners who use IV drugs or who have visible oral, inguinal, genital, perineal or anal lesions (Brown, Edwards, Seaton, Buckley, & Adaptation of: Lewis, 2015)
4. Explaining the importance of taking all antibiotics and antiviral agents as prescribed. Explaining to the patient that although symptoms will improve after 1-2 days of therapy, organisms may still be present (Brown et al., 2015). The patient needs to understand the importance of conforming to the highlighted dosages for the antiviral agents provided for the herpes virus. Particularly, the patient needs adequate knowledge concerning the dosage and the expected side effects. Understanding the specific dosage and other instructions associated with the drug interactions helps the patient to increase the efficiency of the drug. There is evidence that failure to conform to the dosage reduces the effectiveness of drugs. For this reason, the patient needs thorough education concerning drug combinations and the expected outcomes as the symptoms improve.
5. The patient will need to be taught about the need for treatment of sexual partners to prevent transmission of infection (Brown et al., 2015). The patient has been having numerous sexual partners that have increased his risks of developing a sexually transmitted infection. There is a need for the patient to receive education concerning the treatment of sexual partners as a way of promoting the higher levels of responsibility and sexual health. Ensuring that sexual partners receive treatment goes a long way in protecting the patient from a future infection or the transmission of the virus to sexual partners. Young people need such knowledge so that they can make informed decisions with their sexual partners on the promotion of safer sex.
6. Teaching the patient that he should abstain from coitus during treatment and to use condoms when sexual activity is resumed to prevent the spread of infection and reinfection (Brown et al., 2015). The patient needs to gain knowledge regarding the need to abstain from sex when taking the antiviral agents. These measures ensure that the sexual activities of the patient do not interfere with the effectiveness of the drug. Moreover, the need to use condoms for safe sex after resuming sexual activity should be well understood by the patient. The patient needs to understand the fundamental basis of practising safe sex and with the core objective of preventing the spreading of the virus or a case of re-infection. The sexual health team members should explain in detail the need for practising safe sex as well as the significance of abstinence during therapy.
7. Explaining the importance of follow up appointments and re-culture at least once after treatment if appropriate to confirm complete cure and prevent relapse (Brown et al., 2015). The patient needs to gain an understanding of the need for follow-up appointments that will help in confirming the cure of the disease. Notably, some patients do not go back for a re-culture, and the infection may relapse. However, providing adequate knowledge to the patient ensures that there is a deeper appreciation of follow-up appointments and other tests in the future. The patient needs to understand that the follow-up appointments signify important steps in promoting sexual health.
8. Encouraging the patient to verbalise any concerns to clarify areas that need an explanation as well as explaining about the symptoms of complications and the need to report problems to ensure proper follow-up and early treatment of reinfection (Brown et al., 2015).
9. Informing the patient about the state of infectivity to prevent a false sense of security, which might result in careless sexual practices and poor personal hygiene (Brown et al., 2015). The patient has been reckless in the past and needs to understand the potential reinfection in the future. Such understanding will prevent irresponsible sexual behaviours and ensure that the patient observes high levels of hygiene.
10. The patient requires an explanation regarding the methods of controlling pain (Brown et al., 2015). Due to the lesions, the patient is experiencing pain. As a result, the healthcare team should provide pain relievers or other alternatives for reducing pain. The patient needs to understand all the available options and choose the most effective alternative.
11. The patient needs knowledge on a proper diet with vitamin C to promote healing (Brown et al., 2015). Having a balanced diet with critical vitamins that enhance healing is of critical importance in enhancing the speed of recovery. Without a proper diet, the recovery process may take longer. The healthcare team should highlight vitamin C sources such as fruits and vegetable that the patient should incorporate in his diet.
12. There is a need to enlighten the patient on relevant stress relaxation techniques (Brown et al., 2015). The patient needs to remain calm and relaxed because stress can heighten the level of infection. For this reason, the patient can adopt relevant relaxation techniques that help in relieving stress and promoting overall wellbeing.
1. Brown, D. (Diane), Edwards, H. (Professor of nursing), Seaton, L., Buckley, T., & Adaptation of: Lewis, S. M. (2015). Lewis’s medical-surgical nursing : assessment and management of clinical problems. N.S.W: Elsevier Australia.
2. Bullock., S., & Manias. (2016). Fundamentals of Pharmacology. (8th edition.). P. Ed Australia. Retrieved from http://www.worldcat.org/title/fundamentals-of-pharmacology/oclc/1030689188&referer=brief_results
3. Bullock., Shane., & Hales. (2012). Principles of Pathophysiology. Sydney : P. Ed Australia. Retrieved from http://www.worldcat.org/title/principles-of-pathophysiology/oclc/1001989696
4. McKenna, L., & Mirkov, S. (2012). Australia New Zealand nursing & midwifery drug handbook (6th ed.). Sydney: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Retrieved from http://www.worldcat.org/title/australia-new-zealand-nursing-midwifery-drug-handbook/oclc/774921350&referer=brief_results
5. Peate, I. (2013). Treating STIs in male patients. Independent Nurse. Retrieved from http://www.independentnurse.co.uk/clinical-article/treating-stis-in-male-patients/63533/
6. Scipio, C. (2006). Making peace with herpes : a holistic guide to overcoming the stigma and freeing yourself from outbreaks. Sechelt B.C.: Green Sun Press. Retrieved from http://www.worldcat.org/title/making-peace-with-herpes-a-holistic-guide-to-overcoming-the-stigma-and-freeing-yourself-from-outbreaks/oclc/69186643
7. Yarbrough, M. L., & Burnham, C.-A. D. (2016). The ABCs of STIs: An Update on Sexually Transmitted Infections. Clinical Chemistry, 62(6), 811–823. https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2015.240234