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Health Lifestyle

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Part A: Quantitative Article by Burdette, Needham, Hill, and Taylor

Background

Lifestyles have a correlation effect on our health, and we must define health not from a singular perspective but from a society base to collect much data, which shows health trends and behavior in the community. The researchers recognize that little research has been done to determine the lifestyle behavior on our overall health care and that the impact can be huge if no quantitative and qualitative research is done. The researchers have set out a few types of research carried out on related topics. They identify the studies done on an association of holding multiple social roles and health outcomes. However, the authors have objectively laid out the problem statement, which is, how acquiring multiple roles in early adulthood influence health behavior.

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Literature Review

The researchers have used several past projects carried out by different others. The topics in the literature review are problems related to the topic the researchers were handling. Some questions have touched on population and general lifestyle behaviors and their effects on health. “Health and lifestyles,” and “Human Health Development” are the key topics the researchers discussed. Other topics include: “Diabetes Prevention Program,” “Diabetes Prevention,”  “Health Behaviors in Adolescents” and “Lifestyle Health Behavior in Adults.” The topics had limitations and had not addressed the particular concern that the statement was raising.

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Methodology

A quantitative approach was the preferred method for the authors. Data obtained from Add Health, an institution that primarily collects adolescence data from schools, families and other learning institutions. Sampled data was already available, and quantitative analysis was used to define a critical process of calculation. The measurement was also used as the subtype to calculate the variables. Self-rating was part of the health analysis used to obtain data.

Data Analysis

Data were evaluated using a Latent Class Analysis (LCA), this involved model latent healthy lifestyle from observed health behavior indicators. LCA is similar to other reduction data analysis techniques. LCA uses the variable with a multinomial distribution to establish clusters of individuals based on observed indicators Secondly, predicting healthy lifestyle based on self-health measuring, and role occupancy during the transition to early adulthood was another suitable method (Burdette, Needham, Hill, Taylor, 2017).Latent class analysis was also used as both a dependent and independent variable in the data analyses.

Conclusion

The results gave a significant approach to lifestyle health. The researchers suggested the importance of modeling overall health instead of focusing on an individual health behavior. Secondly, the result demonstrated how holding many social lifestyles influence health behavior. The conclusion makes sense because the results explain a correlation between essential roles and health behavior, which is already shown in primary health care (Burdette et al., 2017). The researchers have also concluded that adolescence lifestyle has a significant influence on self-rated health.

Researcher’s Conclusion Analysis

The investigator’s conclusion emphasizes on the significance of concentrating on overall healthy lifestyles rather than individual approach to health behavior. The literature review showed that there was little research carried out on the purpose statement but data collected had demonstrated that overall approach to social lifestyle gave particular health behavior (Burdette et al., 2017). The quantitative method was the best approach to use for this type of research because it gives both numerical and descriptive data as supported by the results.

Protection and Consideration

The research does not plainly admit to getting parental consent from adolescence bracket who are below 18 years, and this is a breach of ethical standards in research and research formulation. Even though the study was voluntary for students, were they informed? Ethical standards, especially when getting data from children below eighteen years is a serious violation.

Strengths and Limitations

The authors used a broad sample base, which enhances the accuracy of the results. Strength in the research is the sample size. In one year, a record of 15,000 young adults, 18000 parents and 143 school officials were interviewed (Burdette et al., 2017). The large sample size represents a significant data with variables that can give an overall picture of the lifestyle behavior on the health of young adults. Conversely, a young group may not have the right perspective about their health and may give false information. For example, the interviews conducted at home in the presence of their parents may have a lot of errors; telling the interviewer that you drink and your parents are sitting across is the unlikely occurrence.

Evidence Applications

The results of the research show that essential roles lead to a life of less tobacco and alcohol consumption. It also is shown that critical part has less influence on drug abuse. Such substances are associated with Tuberculosis and other related diseases linked to drugs hence a reduction in such diseases if public awareness is achieved. If the trend goes on unabated, then nursing will face severe health care burden, in an already strained health profession. Nurses can add the findings on this research to the already existing knowledge and make informed decisions when handling young adults.

Alternatively, nursing faces a grave threat to a sick young person if the majority has roles, which are voluntary; results show that the majority of young adults take more alcohol, tobacco and use drugs. Lifestyle health behavior is crucial to the nursing practice in controlling lifestyle diseases. Today, nursing faces many diseases as a result of lifestyle behavior, and the results of the research can help solve these challenges by educating young adults on healthy lifestyle and how to take essential roles rather than voluntary roles.

Part B: Qualitative Article by VanDevanter et al.

Background

The authors considered the statistics on HIV awareness, prevention and infection how it affects the overall HIV control. HIV testing in America is at half the population, and the authors wanted to find if patients would use new HIV testing areas. The purpose statement, the attitude of patients towards HIV testing in dental facilities, represents an accurate measure towards the research and coming up with actual data.

Literature Review

The authors heavily rely on statistic to from past studies to outline the course of the work. The authors’ centers literature review on Center for Disease Control (CDC), where HIV prevalence of 1.1 million people in the USA are affected. Some of the topics discussed include, “HIV Testing,” “Nurses-dentist Collaboration in HIV Testing,” and “Emerging and Infectious Diseases.” The literature review also draws reference from American Academy of Nursing Expert Panel (2010) and CDC (2006) on widespread HIV testing.

Methodology

A qualitative method was conducted during the interview; using open ended questions, and patients’ attitude and perception on the topic was significant (Vandevanter, 2012). Categorizing samples ensures that the variables being compared. 19 patients were asked to genuinely describe their attitude, acceptability, and perception towards rapid oral HIV testing in a dental clinic setting.

Data Analysis

To analyze the data, the qualitative thematic content analysis, a preliminary coding scheme. Each data from the 19 patients were coded, and its content analyzed as one before having a general thematic analysis of the all data collected (Vandevanter, 2012). Coding analysis revealed the emerging pattern in the data collected hence gave an indication as to what the 19 patients thought about the topic raised.

Conclusions

Rapid oral HIV testing in hospitals is a critical approach to reaching important members in the population the society who do not access primary health care centers. Patients were not concerned about where they were tested but on privacy policy, consent, confirmatory test, post-test counseling and linkage to Medicare (Vandevanter, 2012). Overall, patients were concerned about their health and HIV testing in dental settings was not of concern, but ethical issues were severely consideration. The conclusion raises serious concerns, which if addressed can lead to milestone achievement in HIV reduction.

Researcher’s Conclusion Analysis

The concept of rapid oral HIV testing in dental facilities is welcomed by patients, but patients demand, post-test counseling, consent, confirmatory and Medicare (Vandevanter, 2012).  Literature review led to the precise analysis of HIV test location question hence the accuracy of data. The method used influenced the result because patients were given open ended question and discussed them hence raising concerns, which formed the evidence. Coding scheme critically evaluated the trends from the data. The conclusion has accurately reflected on the results in line with the purpose statement.

Protection and Consideration

Patients were informed of the purpose of the study, and their consent was needed to conduct the research. Patients were also offered a considerable amount of $ 20 for New York transit card (Vandevanter, 2012). The researchers who approached the patients were well trained and handled the patients with professionalism by explaining the process to them. Patients consent and right are significant to any medical research.

Strengths and Limitations

The research conducted in the populous New York City, which represented diverse urban individuals. However, the study was conducted in the urban setting and did represent the views of persons in the rural areas (Vandevanter, 2012). Consequently, the research also was limited to those who were pro HIV testing in urban facilities were the most likely to accept the interviews and questions (Vandevanter, 2012). Those who objected pro HIV testing were unlikely to agree to the research.

Evidence Applications

Nurses and the hospital facilities can organize HIV testing in dental health centers as a way of combating HIV infection and awareness. Nurses can also address the concerns raised by the sampled patients to attract those who are willing to be tested but hold back because of the concerns expressed in the research. An overall, dental facility, especially in a populous city is an important place to provide oral HIV testing for health seekers.

1. Burdette, A., Needham, B., Hill, T., & Taylor, M. (2017). Health Lifestyles in Adolescence and Self-rated Health into Adulthood. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1-35. Retrieved on July 28, 2017, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313469246_Health_Lifestyles_in_Adolescence_and_Self-rated_Health_into_Adulthood

2. Vandevanter, N., Combellick, J., Hutchinson, M. K., Phelan, J., Malamud, D., & Shelley, D. (2012). A Qualitative Study of Patients’ Attitudes toward HIV Testing in the Dental Setting. Nursing Research and Practice, 2012, (2012), Article ID 803169, 1-6. Retrieved July 29, 2017, from http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/nrp/2012/803169.pdf

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