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Management of Diabetes

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Introduction

Diabetes is a prevalent condition in the contemporary world that describes a group of metabolic diseases where individuals have high-blood pressure resulting from inadequate production of insulin or when the body does not adequately respond to insulin. The condition has emerged to be a concern for many people and healthcare providers interested in human well-being with the increasing number of diabetic cases. For instance, in 2013, it was discovered that over three hundred and eighty-two million individuals throughout the world had diabetes.  In the United States alone, it was estimated to affect 29.1 million people alongside being the seventh leading cause of death. Meanwhile, as many people feel the need to address the issue, Healthy People 2020 also identifies diabetes as a significant health concern and aims at minimizing the impact of Diabetes Mellitus (Koh, 2010). Therefore, the paper reviews the case of Orange County, California concerning diabetes and related interventions. Diabetes is a severe condition that can be intervened through community-based service to improve the quality of life.

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Community Intervention Services

Orange County, California benefits from numerous programs, agencies and the support from Healthy People 2020 programs to promote healthy living. The regions have set initiatives aimed at eradicating diabetes through such programs as health insurance coverage which provides resources to assist individuals with their healthcare and social needs. Again, Healthy People 2020 association established a National Diabetes Prevention Program to facilitate and implement a public intervention on health and lifestyle as various studies have linked lifestyle change in preventing or delaying the onset of some types of diabetes (Asian, 2014).

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More importantly is that the region has increased evidence-based programs to facilitate the prevention and self-management of chronic diseases and also facilitate the reduction of the risk factor for diabetes (King, 2010). The plans include Diabetes Self-management Programs which conveys necessary knowledge and skills for people with diabetes and the community at large to help raise awareness of such chronic diseases (Koh, 2010).

Advantages

The programs and resources aimed at reducing diabetes are essential for several reasons. First, health insurance coverage generates resources that cover the needs of individuals concerning health. By encouraging insurance coverage, health recipients are assured of timely and adequate healthcare essential in managing health conditions before they accelerate. Also, health insurance covers increase the access to healthcare for persons with diabetes at an early stage (Brownson et al, 2009).

Evidence-based self-management programs for diabetes contribute to preventive care by helping patients experience reduced health distress, lowered healthcare costs, and reduced visits to emergency rooms and physicians by practicing useful ways that help in managing diabetes (Brownson et al, 2009). By increasing awareness on self-management of chronic diseases through training, the rate of morbidity garnered from diabetes can be reduced significantly in addition to reducing the health and economic burdens for people with diabetes Meritus.  The programs also lead to increased awareness of lifestyle diseases by providing knowledge and skills which people can use to adopt a healthy lifestyle.

Disparities in Services

One of the overarching target of Healthy People 2020 is reducing inequalities to attain health balance, eradicate differences and even build on the health of various groups (Asian, 2014). Nevertheless, some of the gaps exhibited in the health care programs are as follows based on race and ethnicity;

  • People consisting of minority populations in the United States have high chances of suffering from type 2 diabetes. In fact, minor groups represent twenty-five percent of all diabetic patients in the United States which also serves children and adolescents.
  • Hispanic Americans, African-Americans, American Indians and part of Asian Americans pose a high risk of the development of type 2 diabetes.
  • The prevalence rates of diabetes among American Indians is higher than that of whites by two to five times. In fact, African Americans have high chances of having the disease than the whites. The same case applies to Mexicans and Puerto Ricans.

Health disparities can also be tracked regarding gender, geographic location, sexual identity and orientation, and even individual health care needs (Raaijmaker et al, 2013).

Individuals With Limited Access

Low-income individuals in most cases have limited access to services aimed at alleviating diabetes and may not actively participate in health-promoting programs such as volunteerism due to the limited resources (Raaijmakers et al, 2013). However, interventions such as healthcare insurance have somewhat intervened assuring individuals of access to healthcare facilities and services. Health disparities are also noted as a result of geographic location whereby the people living in the rural areas might be disadvantaged to the access of programs aimed at promoting healthy lifestyles and teaching on strategies to manage diabetes. The geographic locations significantly affect the accessibility of programs, yet this group constitutes a significant number of the population in the United States.

Cost of the Service

The services rendered through diabetes self-management programs, a key strategy in eliminating diabetes, majorly compute to time spent by providers in the delivery of Diabetics self-management programs that include training and also resource consumed to implement the programs. Brownson, Hoerger, Fisher & Kilpatrick (2009), noted that there are significant variations in price concerning the processes of implementation of Diabetes Self-management programs across different regions or states which are driven by mix of personnel skill, training lay leaders, advertisements, workshop space rentals, and efficiency variances among other costs. In addition the costs variations are influenced because programmers differ in duration in hours of time spent in delivery and the number of people recruited to benefit from such programs (Brownson, 2009). In this case, the cost of services are not constant as they are determined by several variances. Nevertheless, these services help reduce medical costs incurred by recipients in the future.

Facilitators and Barriers

The significant facilitators of diabetes management programs are the prominent awareness and role of healthcare providers in diabetes care and also preventive care. Health care professionals continue to work tirelessly to expand the worksites for program implementation and ensure progress in outreach capable of transforming the healthcare system (Raaijmakers et al, 2013).

On the other hand, some of the barriers towards successful implementation of Diabetes Self-Management Programs (DSMP) is the alarming increase in the number of people with diabetes which in turn results in the decrease in the resources available to attend to the vast population. For instance, the self-management programs require multiple resources for support which might not be sufficient to cater for the growing population (Raaijmakers et al, 2013). Also, the funding of diabetes care and role of health insurers is a significant barrier which influences successful implementation of diabetes care.

Healthcare Consumerism

Regarding consumption of healthcare services, providers have a massive task in ensuring that people embrace and adopt healthy lifestyles alongside the interaction with the healthcare system. The stampede towards changing the consumer behavior can be concurred by lowering healthcare costs and ultimately improving the quality of care (Swam, 2009). The mentioned model lead to the belief that end-users can be motivated to assume the responsibility of managing their health and care whereby Swan (2009), states that individuals are expected to make smart and informed decisions about the care they receive and the institutions and professionals they choose for their health-related needs. In the meantime, advocacy and assistant programs can also provide an excellent platform that can be used to provide timely support for persons interested in navigating the healthcare system. Utilizing such programs to offer assistance to consumers at their time of need can play a significant role in helping the individual make better health care choices (Swan, 2009).

Improving Services.

Administrators have the task of improving and networking healthcare services within the community by engaging various stakeholders’ as active participants in care. This includes patients and their families, caregivers, sponsors and the public at large to push for activities that advocate for quality services and positive interactions (King et al., 2010). For instance, administrators can engage in community-based programs that attract volunteerisms and educative sessions that impact the community positively. In essence, healthcare system should consider seeking support which acts as a reinforcement to achieving the set goals.

Information Technology is also crucial in connecting with a broad audience and improving the quality of health when integrated with sufficient funding. Information Technology serves as an essential link between healthcare systems and networks while offering the necessary information and training (Swan, 2009). The performance of health-delivery service is determined by access and use by those in need in which case administrators must ensure optimal use of technological systems to serve community members.

Conclusion

Health is crucial in human existence as it supports life processes and well-being. Notwithstanding, the continued need to maintain healthy lifestyles, numerous organizations have risen to campaign and spread awareness on human welfare. Healthy People 2020, has also taken the lead in promoting healthy lifestyles by discussing several lifestyle diseases such as diabetes. The condition is undoubtingly growing at an alarming rate as more people continue to surface on ways towards its elimination. In this case, healthcare providers in different regions have adopted Diabetes Self-management programs among other services which aim at training and educating people concerning diabetes. This strategy has been taken in different areas as a useful intervention tool for managing chronic diseases.

1. Asian, P. I. (2014). HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020. Community/Public Health Nursing Practice-E-Book: Health for Families and Populations, 41, 192.

2. Brownson, C. A., Hoerger, T. J., Fisher, E. B., & Kilpatrick, K. E. (2009). Cost-effectiveness of diabetes self-management programs in community primary care settings. The Diabetes Educator, 35(5), 761-769.

3. King, D. K., Glasgow, R. E., Toobert, D. J., Strycker, L. A., Estabrooks, P. A., Osuna, D., & Faber, A. J. (2010). Self-efficacy, problem-solving, and social-environmental support is associated with diabetes self-management behaviors. Diabetes Care, 33(4), 751-753.

4. Koh, H. K. (2010). A 2020 vision for healthy people. New England Journal of Medicine, 362(18), 1653-1656.

5. Raaijmakers, L. G., Hamers, F. J., Martens, M. K., Bagchus, C., de Vries, N. K., & Kremers, S. P. (2013). Perceived facilitators and barriers in diabetes care: a qualitative study among health care professionals in the Netherlands. BMC family practice, 14(1), 114.

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