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Psychotic Disorder Paper

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Abstract

Psychotic disorders are the conditions that are usually associated with psychosis, or perceptions and thoughts. Psychotic disorders are severe mental problems, which cause false perceptions and abnormal thinking to the victims. The affected persons are unable to make proper judgments, behave appropriately, communicate effectively, understand reality, think clearly, and respond emotionally to things happening around them. Types of psychotic disorders include schizoaffective disorder, Schizophrenia disorder, Schizophreniform disorder, delusional disorder, and brief psychotic disorder. Even though the causes of psychotic disorders are not known, environmental and genetic factors are associated with it. The symptoms of psychotic disorders are observed from the alteration of someone’s perceptions and thoughts, and they include hallucinations, distorted speech, delusion, and depression. Usually, the diagnosis of the psychosis revolves around understanding history and conducting the neurological and physical examination. Antipsychotic medications are among the useful treatments of psychotic disorders. Addition to it is cognitive behavioral therapy. Avoidance of substance substances may help to prevent psychosis.

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Introduction

Psychosis are conditions that cause some loss of normal contact with reality, and it usually affects the mind. In such a situation, the individual’s perceptions and thoughts are disturbed and configuring the right things from wrong ones becomes confusing to them (Fraser et al., 2007). Concerning this, psychotic disorders are described as severe mental problems, which cause false perceptions and abnormal thinking to the victims. The experience of a range of extreme symptoms of psychotic disorders such as delusions and hallucinations make people with this condition to lose contact with reality. These terms make it hard for the affected persons to make proper judgments, behave appropriately, communicate effectively, understand reality, think clearly, and respond emotionally to things happening around them. Despite the fact that psychotic disorders severely affect mental stability of an individual, they can still be treated. Moreover, the effects of psychotic disorder in both men and female are the same, and the conditions are most commonly found in people in their late teens. Types of psychotic disorders include schizoaffective disorder, Schizophrenia disorder, Schizophreniform disorder, and brief psychotic disorder. Therefore, the paper will focus on the discussion of psychotic disorder.

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A psychotic patient may not necessarily have the outward characteristics of being ill as would be witnessed in another form of ill-health conditions. Psychosis in some cases may cause bizarre behaviors indicating that the condition is more apparent. The behaviors of psychotic patients vary widely as the illness becomes more severe (Zarate et al., 2000). The psychotic illness has characteristics that affect individual’s lack of emotion, personality, and movement. It may be difficult to predict the behaviors of people with the psychotic disorder. Psychosis is the primary symptom of psychotic disorders. However, many disorders including non- psychiatric medical illness have psychosis symptoms. Examples of such conditions include brain tumors, severe injury to the head, and epilepsy may develop psychosis. Drugs of abuse such as PCP, cocaine, or amphetamines are a common cause of psychosis.

Types of Psychotic Disorders

2.1 Schizoaffective Disorder

The absence of mood symptoms gives a good experience of the existence of schizoaffective disorder although in most cases, a person has this type of psychosis, symptoms of mood disturbance and schizophrenia accompany them. The experience can help either alternate over time or be done at the same time. The person suffering from this psychotic disorder must have had in the absence of mood symptoms hallucinations or delusions. The two types of subtypes of schizoaffective disorder include a depressive type that is more common in older people and bipolar type usually found in young adults. Medical conditions cannot result in the disturbance.

2.2 Schizophrenia Disorder

It is a mental illness characterized by the presence of psychotic symptoms. The condition makes an individual’s body not to function correctly on a day-to-day basis until they receive psychotropic medication and healthy skills of daily living. The most common psychotic disorder that affects the majority of people is schizophrenia. Patients with this type of condition usually experience hallucinations, changes in behavior, and delusions that last for a period of more than one six months (Rössler et al., 2005). Anyone showing a decline in social function at workplace or school is in most cases diagnosed with this type of disorder. It is also found that men are mostly stricken by psychosis associated with schizophrenia than their female counterparts. However, the condition can happen to anyone, and it is possible to recover after undergoing proper diagnosis. Schizophrenia is a mental problem that affects the way people think, act, and feels. At this point, these patients find it difficult to distinguish between the imaginary things and what is real.

2.3 Schizophreniform Disorder

The disorder is characterized by mood disturbance, which may resemble bipolar disorder. In this case, there are drastic shifts in the ability and mood to configure real things from illusions. The presence of these psychosis symptoms hinders one’s ability to go about their daily activities. The condition requires thorough assessment from the mental health professional to determine if an individual suffers from this illness because the situation is complex in nature. Disorganized speech, catatonic behaviors, hallucinations, and delusions are the main symptoms of the schizophreniform disorder. Individuals are only diagnosed with the psychosis when they have shown two or more of these symptoms for not less than one month. The mood disorder and schizoaffective disorder that has psychotic features must be ruled out, and a medical condition should have caused them.

2.4 Brief Psychotic Disorder

The brief psychotic disorder has symptoms that last for at least one day and not longer than a month. The symptoms of this disorder appear suddenly in response to highly stressful events such as being a victim of rape crime. The symptoms of this psychosis may be severe but are usually short-lived. During that period, such individuals may not be aware of their bizarre behavior. Most patients who suffer from brief psychotic disorder may exhibit disorganized speech, hallucinations, and delusions. Significant emotional turmoil can be experienced by such individuals making them greatly confused. When not monitored, such individuals may risk committing suicide. It is only possible to diagnose an individual with the brief psychotic disorder after ruling out schizoaffective disorder, mood disorder, and schizophrenia. The psychosis in most cases follows a period of considerable disappears and stress as quickly as it comes. For a psychosis to be considered a brief psychotic disorder, it must come and go within one month. Healthcare professionals conduct a mental health interview to determine any history and the presence of symptoms to evaluate if a person suffers from the brief psychotic disorder.

2.5 Delusional Disorder

It is a condition of mental health that involves holding strong and false beliefs pertinent to a given experience. The delusions are usually things that could be happening in one’s life, but in a real sense, they do not exist. Any person diagnosed with this condition can be determined if such individuals are battling with a true to fixed beliefs that prove to be false in the serious rational discussion. Most psychotic individuals have strong feelings in being irrational with no basis of reality. The diagnosis of psychosis is made when the assessment has indicated that substances or medical conditions have not caused the delusion.

2.6 Shared Psychotic Disorder

It is the type of illness where delusional beliefs are transferred to another person. In this case, the complication usually involves a married couple or two-family members. The first person to develop delusion is termed as more dominant whereas the other one who adopts the delusions tend to be more suggestible. The delusion is often similar to the one that the already diagnosed person is possessing. Other psychotic disorders must be ruled out if a person has to be diagnosed with this kind of illness. No medical condition or substances must cause delusion.

2.7 Drug-Induced Psychosis

The use too much alcohol and illegal drugs such as cocaine, methamphetamine, marijuana, and amphetamines may in specific incidences cause psychotic symptoms to appear on an individual. Additionally, hallucinogenic drugs like LSD usually cause users to see things which in a real sense do not exist, but the effects they pose are temporary. Similarly, the symptoms of psychosis can result from the prescription of some drugs such as the stimulants and steroids. In this case, the symptoms of psychosis are resolved once the effects of these drugs or alcohol wear off.

Consequently, the sudden withdrawal from taking addictive substances such as consumption of certain drugs and alcohol can also make an individual to experience psychotic symptoms. The symptoms can be rectified through medical treatment. However, sometimes the psychosis caused by the initial substance-induced psychosis persists when the person consistently uses stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine.

3.0 Causes of Psychotic Disorders

The actual causes of psychosis are not well known, but different results have indicated that bipolar and schizophrenia disorder may share a common genetic problem. Besides, certain chemicals have been found in people who have psychosis, and these have made the researcher term it as alteration of brain structure. Brain scans have also indicated that people with a history of psychosis have reduced gray matter. Current research studies have suggested that brain chemicals such as serotonin and dopamine have contributed to the development of psychosis. Besides, the combination of biological factors including genetic factors has created situations in which the person becomes a greater risk of developing psychotic symptoms. These become the potential risk factors that can increase a person’s chances of developing a psychotic disorder.

4.0 Symptoms of Psychotic Disorders

The psychosis is a standard feature of psychotic disorders, and its development can be gradual or sudden, and this can be portrayed in the early warning signs. These may include depression, social withdrawal, or feeling suspicious. During this period, the changes can occur in energy level, appetite, and patterns of sleep alongside memory and thinking capacity. Consequently, symptoms of psychosis vary from individual to individual based on the type of psychotic disorder exhibited, and this may change over time. The common symptoms of psychosis are shown below.

4.1 Change in Behavior

It has been found that people experiencing a psychotic disorder may behave differently from their usual nature. Usually, the symptoms mentioned above are associated with the changes in behavior. In this case, such individuals may exercise unusually laughter at inappropriate times without any apparent reason. Over time such people may seem less interested in friends and their works. Eating and sleeping patterns of these people may also be affected by the existence of this illness in their bodies. Depression is another form of behavior change that can be seen from a portion of people experiencing a psychotic behavior. An attempt by people with suicidal thoughts to hurt themselves is a sign of depression, and is common with psychotic patients. Depression is a natural response to chronic mental health issues. However, in some instance, it can stand alone as a disorder.

4.2 False Beliefs

Delusions are false beliefs that in most cases develop among people experiencing psychotic episodes. Such persons may stick to a belief which is not shared with others as true, and they cannot change their thoughts even in the most logical argument. For instance, one can believe that outside forces are controlling their thoughts.

5.0 Diagnosis of Psychotic Disorders

It is essential for the physicians to correctly determine the apparent symptoms of psychosis developed by an individual are an underlying medical substance or medical use disorder. The diagnosis of psychosis is made through a psychiatric evaluation where a doctor takes the responsibility of watching the behavior of a person and then asks them the kind of experience that they are going through in that condition. In the determination of whether the underlying illness causes the symptoms, the physicians are asked to use both X-ray and medical tests. If the behavioral changes to have resulted from drug or medical exposure, then the patient is considered to be with the psychosis condition, and all the assessment goes along that line. In this case, the psychotic disorder may be due to withdrawal or toxin exposure (Stahlberg et al., 2004). If both the toxin exposure and a medical cause have not been found while conducting the assessment, then the psychotic illness such as schizophrenia may be taken into consideration.

It is recommended that diagnosis to be conducted by a licensed mental-health professional who can carefully evaluate the diagnostic criteria to identify the condition from a variety of mental illnesses that show some form of resemblance. In case, the psychotic patient has failed sufficiently during the examination process, and then it is recommended that the doctor conduct serial examination and use their overall impression. The older the patient rarely develops the psychotic disorders. However, the infections of their urinary tract have been found to be causing mental status change. The physician will examine someone who is suspected of having a psychosis in the emergency department or an office. The other health professionals who may also administer the same treatment to the psychotic patients include psychiatric nurses and nurse practitioners, licensed social workers, and mental health physician assistants. Licensed mental health professionals are the best in performing diagnosis of psychosis since they can sort through the diagnostic criteria for a variety of mental illness whose symptoms may look alike carefully during the initial stages (Stahlberg et al., 2004). The medical doctor sometimes takes the patient’s history, and then a physical examination is performed that include laboratory and other tests such as computerized tomography (CT) scan of the brain.

10.0 Conclusion

Psychotic disorders are those complications associated with an alternation of a person’s perception and thought or psychosis. The condition causes some loss of regular contact with reality, and it usually affects the mind. Psychotic disorders are described as severe mental problems, which cause wrong perceptions and abnormal thinking to the victims. Types of psychotic disorders include schizoaffective disorder, Schizophrenia disorder, Schizophreniform disorder, and brief psychotic disorder. The environmental and genetic factors are associated with psychotic disorders as its causes even though the actual cause remains unknown. The psychological causes often influence the type of psychotic episode experienced by someone. Psychosis is the characteristic feature of the psychotic disorder. Symptoms of psychotic disorders include depression, social withdrawal, and feeling suspicious. Symptoms of psychosis vary from individual to individual based on the type of psychotic disorder exhibited, and this may change over time.

Symptoms of psychosis vary from individual to individual based on the type of psychotic disorder exhibited, and this may change over time. Medical health professionals are the one to be ones who can administer proper medical test assessment for any symptoms that may appear to indicate existence of psychosis. The apparent symptoms of psychosis developed by an individual are an underlying medical substance or medical use disorder. The diagnosis of psychosis is performed a psychiatric evaluation where a doctor takes the responsibility of watching the behavior of a person and then asks them the kind of experience that they are going through in that condition. Signs of clumsiness or mild confusion may exist among people with a psychotic disorder. After a diagnosis of psychotic disorder to a person, the doctor would rely on the family members or friends for detailed information and history of this particular patient. Psychotic features are known to be severe psychosis symptoms results from a major bipolar disorder or depressive disorder.

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