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Response to the Assigned Discussion Questions

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Association Between Breast Cancer and Alcohol

Research design:  Chen et al. (2011) used the prospective observational approach of the study to evaluate the association between breast cancer and alcohol in the participants. They were evaluated for the risks of developing invasive breast cancers.

Strength and weakness of design: the study utilised representative sample size of 105986 women over a period of 28 years. The problem with such study is that it depended on the available records, so any meaningful information not captured with that period were omitted.

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Rationale for the selected design: the levels of alcoholism especially in terms of dosage was not studied hence the present study aimed to bridge that gap.

Differences Between Self-Efficacy Score Among the Older Adults Exercising and Those Who Do Not

Research design: the study by McAuley et al. (2011) used a randomized controlled exercise trail. The older adults recruited were previously inactive and were assessed using self efficacy for walking, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy methods.

Strength and weakness of design: the study recruited participants who begun on a lower efficacy, and this could indicate any significance difference after the study duration thereby adding knowledge on health psychology. The limitations were based on the sample size, besides, they could have included a negative control samples.

Rationale for the selected design: starting from a disadvantaged category where the participants posses low efficacy is paramount to justify any changes induced by the test parameter.

Attitude Differences Between Female and Male Students Toward Condoms

Research design: The study by Brandon et al. (2011) involved using an online questionnaire to collect data from the cohort targeting college students on their attitude of using condom. The items for evaluation were obtained from both Multidimension Condom Attitude and Attitude Towards Condom use scales.

Strength and weakness of design: The merits of the study is remised on the validation of Brief Condom Attitude Scale as the alternative for the assessment. However, given that the study was based on an online assessment, chances of obtaining unreliable data was high unless they could have instituted measures to reduce external and external threats.

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Rationale for the selected design: the study was informed by the desire to develop an abbreviated tools for assessing attitude of college students on the use of condom.

1. Chen, W. Y., Rosner, B., Hankinson, S. E., Colditz, G. A., & Willett, W. C. (2011). Moderate alcohol consumption during adult life, drinking patterns, and breast cancer risk. Jama, 306(17), 1884-1890.

2. Hill, B. J., Amick, E. E., & Sanders, S. A. (2011). Condoms and US college-aged men and women: briefly assessing attitudes toward condoms and general condom use behaviours. Sexual Health, 8(3), 372-377.

3. McAuley, E., Mailey, E. L., Mullen, S. P., Szabo, A. N., Wójcicki, T. R., White, S. M., … & Kramer, A. F. (2011). Growth trajectories of exercise self-efficacy in older adults: Influence of measures and initial status. Health Psychology, 30(1), 75.

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