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# Sample Testing

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## The Levene Test

296 Females have a mean level of disability of 14.18 while 37 males have a mean level of disability of 11.97. The Levene test has a p value of 0.147 indicating the groups did not differ in the way the scores vary in each group. The sig to the right of the degree of freedom p value is 0.045. This is less than 0.05. Therefore, there is a significant difference in level of disability between men and females.t value is 2.016 meaning the p value becomes significant. Females were found to have significantly higher level of disability than men (t = 2.016, p = 0.045).

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## The Levene Test

For the group of 293 females the mean was 31.1809 and for 37 men the mean was 31.3514. The Levene test has a p value of 0.873 indicating the groups did not differ in the way the scores vary in each group. The sig to the right of the degree of freedom p value is 0.870. This is greater than 0.05. Therefore, there is no significant difference in self-esteem scores between males and females.t value -0.164. There is no difference in self-esteem scores between females and males (t = -0.164, p = 0.870).

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## The ANOVA

Herth hope index total score time 1 mean for 14 periods is 37.2857, while herth hope index total score time 2 for 14 periods is 41.5714.

The t value is t (13) = -3.963.there was a significant difference in hope from time 1 to time 2.the p value is p<0.002.the second period recorded a higher hope index of about 5.

## ANOVA

The mean score improved from 30.14 to 33.86. This was a significant difference. The t value is -3.05, p<0.0005) there was sig average difference, the p value is 0.009 which is > 0.05 which is significant difference in self-esteem. There is a higher self-esteem in week 4 than baseline in self-esteem (t = -3.05, p = 0.09).

## ANOVA

The mean increased from 37.29 to 41.57. This shows a significant difference. T value is -3.96, p<0.0005) there was sig average difference. The  p value is 0.002 which is < 0.05,this shows a sig difference in hope between baseline and week 4.There is a higher hope range in week 4 than baseline t4(t=-3.96,p=0.02)

## ANOVA

The mean increased from 57.50 to 63.43.t value is -2.21, p<0.0005) there was sig average difference. The p value is 0.046 is < 0.05 this shows a significant difference in social support between baseline and week 4.There is a higher social support range in week 4 than in baseline (t = -2.21, p = 0.046).

## ANOVA

The mean increased from 647.14 in baseline to 751.43 in week 4.the t value is -2.68,p<0.0005)there was  sig average difference. P value is 0.019 >0.05, this shows a significance difference in self-efficacy. There is a higher self-efficacy in week 4 than baseline (t=-2.68.p=0.19)

## ANOVA

The mean increased from 486.43 to 649.29. The t value is -3.22, p<0.0005). There was a significant average difference. The p value is 0.007 >0.05; this shows a significant difference in self-efficacy. There is a higher self-efficacy in week 4 than baseline (t=-3.22.p=0.007)

Paired t tests-2

## Paired sample T Test

A procedure used to establish whether the average difference between 2 sets of occurrences or observations is zero. Each subject is measured two times, resulting in pairs of observations.

## Independent T Test

This is a procedure that compares the average between 2 unrelated sets on the same dependent variable, therefore establishes whether there is a significant difference between the averages in two unrelated sets.

1. Deng, W. Q., Asma, S., & Paré, G. (2014). Meta-analysis of SNPs involved in variance heterogeneity using Levene’s test for equal variances. European Journal of Human Genetics, 22(3), 427.

2. Mrkvicka, T., Hahn, U., & Myllymaki, M. (2016). A one-way ANOVA test for functional data with graphical interpretation. arXiv preprint arXiv:1612.03608.

3. Campbell, D., & Lele, S. (2014). An ANOVA test for parameter estimability using data cloning with application to statistical inference for dynamic systems. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 70, 257-267.

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