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Pathophysiology of Obesity

A study by Bullon, Newman, & Battino (2014) outline the dangers, as well as the causes of obesity, which is increasingly becoming a problem in many health settings. Obesity in Vermillion County area presents a major health hazard. Apparently, it fosters ailments such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, disruptive sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, and some cancer types. The major causal factors of obesity include genetic vulnerability, physical inactivity, and excessive energy intake just to mention a few. The researcher in this article offers a wide overview of obesity from multiple points of view. The findings in this study suggest that pathophysiology of obesity is a manifold issue with environmental, physiological, socio-cultural, behavioral, epigenetic, genetic, and medical, which contributes to the cause. The secondary analysis in this literature demonstrates the fact that the prevalence of obesity has been steadily growing in Vermillion County.  In addition, it is evident that it is posing the major health risks to both the young and adults. The prevalence of this health issue stands at about 31.4% in 2017. The problem is exposing the people to health risks that can result in the death of an individual.

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Similarly, a study by Alpert et al. (2014) suggests that indicates that obesity is a prevalent issue among many populations or rather groups. Besides, it is exposing the people to major health risks that can result in the death of a person. As such, the basic principle for dealing with the issue is simple. The researcher suggests that individuals should begin reducing the levels of calorie intake. Excessive calories coupled with physical inactivity will result in the body storing more calories. In the process, people will begin to increase the weight, which in turn results in other major ailments like heart diseases and diabetes. Attaining healthier weight necessitates that individuals maintain a meaningful weight loss all the time. Chronically obese individuals stand the risks of acquiring other dangerous ailments that tend to speed up the rate of death. Insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and hyperinsulinism are among the few conditions. The findings of the study indicate that individuals or rather patients are more prone to other diseases when they are obese. For expectant mothers, the problem of obesity will lead to either long-ranger and short-range health problems for both the kid and the mother.

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Magkos et al. (2016) conducts a qualitative study that focuses on investigating the dangers of obesity. Just like the others, the study indicates that obesity is posing serious problems. Among the serious problems that obesity poses to individuals, include joint and bone issues, as well as hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The findings suggest that obesity in the region has reached epidemic levels making it a threat to the wellbeing of a majority of kids and adults. Also notable is that the problem is affecting both the low income and high-income population. It is also evident that the problem of obesity arises from numerous and complex issues that people subject themselves to in many times. The most widely cited issues are the genetic problems, as well as how the body uses energy. Approximately 31% of men and 35% of women in Illinois and its environs are considered overweight. In addition, about 15% of kids in the area are suffering from complications arising from the weight. It is also considered a far-ranging problem bearing in mind that it costs the country roughly $150 million dollars each year. In the United States alone, it is causing about 300,000 premature deaths each year.

Similarities and Differences

From the analysis, the three texts demonstrate some similarities and differences about the pathophysiology of obesity. First, obesity is increasingly becoming an epidemic issue in the country. The findings from the texts indicate that obesity is exposing individuals to high blood pressure (Alpert et al., 2014). High-blood pressure arises because of the extra fat tissues that individuals gain because of consuming huge levels of calories. The body requires a lot of oxygen to break down the fats. Therefore, it subjects the vessels to a lot of pressure, especially during circulation. The studies cite type 2 diabetes as the other danger that obese individuals face. The studies indicate that type 2 diabetes was an issue that was common with adults (Bullon, Newman, & Battino, 2014). Nevertheless, it is increasingly becoming common with the kids because of obesity. The other thing is that obesity is exposing both the kids and adults to cardiovascular diseases, joint problems such as osteoarthritis, respiratory problems, sleep apnea, and cancers such as colon and breast cancers. In addition, it causes psychological problems because it hinders with the attractiveness of an individual. The differences exist on the research approaches that the studies use to explore the dangers of obesity (Magkos et al., 2016).

Clinical Practices to Address Obesity

Among other practices to address the issues of obesity, are the custom-made nutrition and weight management programs. The objective of this guideline is for clinical experts to use it while addressing the challenge of obesity. On the other hand, the general practice (GP) nurses, as well as the primary care experts and related health professions needs to adhere to the ‘5As’ policy. The 5As, in this case, include assess, ask, advise, arrange, and assist. Ask and assess guideline seeks to identify the kind of people who will leverage the assistance including any factors that contribute to their obese nature. The providers will then utilized the guidelines from the assessment to advise before assisting the persons to develop custom-made weight cutting programs. Arrange method aids the persons or rather the patients through referrals and follow-ups. Arrange approach is also important when monitoring the individuals to lose weight in an effort to reduce the levels of obesity. Research evidence underpinning this clinical guideline indicates that the initial 5% weight lost after using the method will reduce the chance of getting diabetes and cardiovascular diseases among other ailments (Osunlana et al., 2015).

Similarly, the obesity guidelines concentrates on what interventions will be effective in addressing the challenges of obesity. In this case, it provides wide-ranging steps that individuals should consider to cut on weight issues from a clinical point of view (Garvey et al., 2016). On the other hand, Dietary and Obesity guidelines promote healthy eating practices, physical activities, as well as behavioral modifications (Jensen et al., 2014). From the look of things, the clinical practices majors on physical activities, healthy eating habits, and modification of behavior. Behavioral modification, in this case, can include changing the overall eating habits. In addition, behavior modification can also comprise of practices that involve avoiding the primary causes of stress. Typically, stress is the biggest challenge that contributes to the prevalence of obesity in the United States. Stress tends to influence the way of life and can lead to increase in weight. Ultimately, the person gets hypertension or heart diseases, which can result in the death of a person. The only difference between these guidelines is that the ‘5As’ strategy is systematic. It is systematic, in the sense that, individuals have to follow certain steps in addressing the issues of obesity unlike in Dietary and Obesity practices and Obesity Guidelines (Osunlana et al., 2015).


Diet and the overall health are high debatable topics with about 60% of adults overweight in the United States. Providing the requisite scientific evidence to fight obesity is the most critical aspect. Various clinical practices and guidelines have been instrumental in shaping the prevalence of obesity in Illinois and its environs. Dietary Guidelines, in the United States, are helping individuals to make decisions about what they need to consume in terms of food. To improve the outcomes when looking to prevent obesity among children, adolescents, and adults, the newly released practices and guidelines will aid the clinical experts to begin personal discussions with the patients who stand a chance of benefiting from weight loss. The role of clinicians is to offer assistance through consultations in an effort to foster weight loss. The demand for evidence-based guidelines is important when it comes to nutrition and weight management tasks. The most important aspects about these clinical practices is that they are all based on research or rather scientific evidence. Therefore, they have a potential to generate better results in fighting obesity in the area (Bray & Bouchard, 2014).

The expectation has always been that the nurses should offer the best strategies for solving the problems of obesity. Obesity, on the other hand, is increasingly becoming a challenging issue. The clinical practices are important part of the nursing practices because it shapes the way GPs solves the issues of obesity. By applying the clinical practices or guidelines pointed out in the paper, it becomes easier to tackle the challenges. Of course, some of the guidelines are more effective compared to others. In addition, some are cost-effective whereas others are costly. Ethical concerns arise where the patients or obese individuals, in this case, fail to get access to full information about the management of obesity. A clearer understanding of the guidelines will aid in providing quality clinical care. Besides, it is more likely that complaints from patients will reduce significantly. The findings provide a great learning opportunity as well. Comparing and contrasting the methods and approaches for dealing with obesity is a critical aspect. One can easily draw loads of knowledge from the comparisons. The knowledge will aid in determining the best approaches for dealing with the obesity menace (Bray & Bouchard, 2014).

Ethical Nursing Practice

Information about the three guidelines for instance is helpful when evaluating and developing recommendations. Ordinarily, guidelines inform the practices of most GPs. Without the guidelines, it would be hard to tell whether the patients are receiving the right information or not. The guidelines are also essential in building or establishing competence in the nursing practice. Sometimes, it can prove hard to deliver, especially where obesity is prevalent. The guidelines are meaningful when building the priority setting skills. Clinical decisions and interventions require a clear understanding of the clinical practices. Ethical issues arise mostly because of uninformed decisions during practice (Bray & Bouchard, 2014).

1. Alpert, M. A., Lavie, C. J., Agrawal, H., Aggarwal, K. B., & Kumar, S. A. (2014). Obesity and heart failure: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management. Translational Research, 164(4), 345-356.

2. Bray, G. A., & Bouchard, C. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of Obesity–Volume 2: Clinical Applications (Vol. 2). CRC Press.

3. Bullon, P., Newman, H. N., & Battino, M. (2014). Obesity, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and chronic periodontitis: a shared pathology via oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction?. Periodontology 2000, 64(1), 139-153.

4. Garvey, W. T., Mechanick, J. I., Brett, E. M., Garber, A. J., Hurley, D. L., Jastreboff, A. M., … & Reviewers of the AACE/ACE Obesity Clinical Practice Guidelines. (2016). American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology comprehensive clinical practice guidelines for medical care of patients with obesity. Endocrine Practice, 22(s3), 1-203.

5. Jensen, M. D., Ryan, D. H., Apovian, C. M., Ard, J. D., Comuzzie, A. G., Donato, K. A., … & Loria, C. M. (2014). 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. Journal of the American college of cardiology, 63(25 Part B), 2985-3023.

6. Magkos, F., Fraterrigo, G., Yoshino, J., Luecking, C., Kirbach, K., Kelly, S. C., … & Klein, S. (2016). Effects of moderate and subsequent progressive weight loss on metabolic function and adipose tissue biology in humans with obesity. Cell metabolism, 23(4), 591-601.

7. Osunlana, A. M., Asselin, J., Anderson, R., Ogunleye, A. A., Cave, A., Sharma, A. M., & Campbell‐Scherer, D. L. (2015). 5As Team obesity intervention in primary care: development and evaluation of shared decision‐making weight management tools. Clinical obesity, 5(4), 219-225.

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