There are various types of diseases affecting different people at different times. Diseases can be categorized on whether they are viral, fungal, and bacteria. Diseases can also be classified on whether they can be transmitted from one person to another or not. For diseases which can transmit from infected from one person to another, then they also have different modes of transmission. These could include through the air, contacting with infected blood, through insects and also through sexually transmitted. Trichomonas is an example of diseases which is transited from one person to another through sexual transmission. It can also be transmitted through other sexual related activities such as oral sex and genital touching. This thesis will, therefore, examine Trichomonas in depth and how it has affected the society like any other sexually transmitted infection.
Trichomonas commonly known as trich is sexually a transmitted disease caused by Trichomonas vaginalis. Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite survives in body fluid thus it can be transmitted easily from the infected to an uninfected person when there is an exchange of body fluids. Women have higher chances of being victims of the disease compared to men. The although the disease is not widely known among the public, health statistics have shown that over 150 million people are victims of the disease yearly (Kissinger, 2015). The United States alone has over 3 million women are victims of the disease. Thus the total number of victims of the disease is around 5 million inclusive of men. The disease has a window stage of around 1 to 4 weeks before the symptoms manifest. During this period, the victim can transmit the disease to other people. However, there instances where a victim can stay for years with the disease without being detected. This research paper will, therefore, give a detailed analysis of the disease based on its causes, signs and symptoms diagnosis, prevention and treatment, effects and statistics about the disease (Kissinger, 2015).
The disease is mainly caused by a parasite known as the Trichomonas vaginalis which depends on human beings as its primary host. The parasite is mainly found in the body fluids of the host. Once, in the body of the host, the disease directly causes severe effects to the cells hence killing them. After the cells have died, it goes ahead to cause more damages to them. Research has shown the parasite uses the advantage of having high gene numbers of about 26,000 to easily duplicate itself once in the boy of the host who is a human being (Bouchemal, Bories, & Loiseau, 2017).
Signs and Symptoms
The disease is associated with various signs and symptoms which manifest on to the body of the victim once the parasite has duplicated its DNA into the body of the host who is mainly the human being. The symptoms and the signs are usually experienced after one to four weeks after infection. One of the most common symptoms and the sign is sensational pains in the sexual body parts specifically on the penis and urethra for men and vagina in women. At some instances, victims might experience lower abdominal pains (Kissinger, 2015). This pain is usually accompanied by a feeling of itching in the same sexual body parts. Due to this, most of the victims usually have a challenge during sexual intercourse and urination due to a feeling of burning experienced as a result of the pain and itching. Another main symptom and sign of the disease is unusual smelly discharge from the boy parts which is usually yellow. This is commonly experienced by the female victims who usually experience a feeling of itchiness during the discharge of the fluid (Kissinger, 2015).
The presence of the disease is mainly determined by performing various tests on the body fluids of the victim mainly the vaginal fluid, urine, and other sexual fluids. In the medical field, there are three different professional tests used o diagnose the infection by the disease. These are the saline microscopic method, the culturing method and the nucleic acid amplification tests commonly known as the NAATs (Bouchemal et al., 2017). The saline microscopic method involves the use of a microscope to identify the presence of the DNA of the causative parasite. A sample specimen is usually taken from the victim and tests are done. The parasite is easy to identify because of its nature of having many genes compared to other sexually transmitted infections. If the presence of any DNA structure of the parasite is noticed, then the result is the presence of the disease. However, this method can be inefficient if the sample used during the tests is inadequate. The culturing method of diagnosis is regarded as one of the efficient methods of the diagnosis of the disease with a rating of about 70 to 90% accuracy depending on how it is done. The process mainly involves culturing the sample of the urine or fluid from the patient to monitor the presence of the parasite. The nucleic acid amplification tests are considered the most efficient and effective method of diagnosis yet relatively expensive. However, its accuracy levels are high compared to the culturing and the microscopy method (Chernesky, Gaydos, Marrazzo, Hobbs, & Schwebke, 2015).
Complications and Health Effects of Trichomoniasis
The disease has been attributed to be the main cause of the reproductive health and the general well being of the body. It has also been associated with various serious diseases affecting human beings affecting human beings currently. Research has linked Trichomoniasis with HIV and AIDS. According to research victims of the disease have higher chances of contracting HIV and AIDS disease. Most of the people who have had a history of the disease in the past, 80% of them have ended up being a victim of the disease. This has also been observed not only in HIV and AIDS but also in other diseases related to reproductive health such as the cancer of the cervix. Although there is no direct relationship established between the relation of Trichomoniasis and the cause of cancer, research has indicated that the disease is directly related to Human Papillomavirus infection usually known as the HPV infection (Bouchemal et al., 2017). HPV has similar characteristics to Trichomoniasis including its mode of transmission and manifestation in the body of the victim. The diseases have been established to be one of the causative agents of cancer of the cervix, penis and even oral parts. Therefore this suggests that Trichomoniasis is also linked with the cause of cancer especially on the body parts. However, this is yet to be established and confirmed by the medics. However, medics have been able to confirm that Trichomoniasis is one of the causative agents of prostate cancer among the male victims. The disease causes severe prostatitis and urethritis conditions which cause prostate cancer as a result of the inflammation of the reproductive body parts of the victim (Kissinger, 2015).
Mothers who are victims of the disease and end up being pregnant deliver babies who are highly affected by the disease. According to research is done, babies whose mothers have a history of the disease are usually born with less than 3.5 kg which is the standard weight for a newborn. Victim mothers may also end up delivering babies prematurely while others experience complications and may end up losing the pregnancy (Chernesky et al., 2015).
The usual complications of the disease are a difficulty during urination and sexual intercourse which is usually as a result of pain and itching of reproductive body parts. This also causes discomfort and uneasiness for the patients. The smelly discharge, especially among women, also causes a feeling of shame thus most victims withdraw from the public (Bouchemal et al., 2017).
Prevention and Treatment
The best way of avoiding the complications and the health effects associated with the contraction of the disease is through preventive measures. Similar to any sexually transmitted infection, use of protective condoms during sexual intercourse is advised to prevent the exchange of body fluids which are the main method by which the disease is transmitted. Abstaining from immoral sexual behavior is also the best preventive measure for the disease (Bouchemal et al., 2017).
Regular screening and testing for the disease is also advisable as victims can have the disease in their bodies for a long period with any signs and clinical manifestation. However, during this period, victims are capable of transmitting the disease to other people. This should be highly emphasized among the women as they have higher chances of contracting the disease. Also, those who are HIV and AIDS patients should be considered (Bouchemal et al., 2017).
Treatment is usually administered orally for a medicine referred to as the metronidazole which is safe for both pregnant and non-pregnant mothers. The medication can also be administered to other victims of the disease. However, the disease tends to become resistant to the drug in cases where victims become infected again with the disease. Hence there is need to avoid contraction of the disease over and over again (Kissinger, 2015).
Research has shown that men have their own natural and biological mechanism of fighting the disease without medication. Hence, the disease tends to disappear from the bodies of male victims over a given period depending on the health condition of the victim. However, this is not the case for women as the disease tend to manifest after being infected. Therefore, women must seek medical treatment immediately they show signs and symptoms of the disease.
Statistics about Trichomoniasis
Studies shown have shown that around 60 million cases of the disease are reported every year according to World Health Organization. In the USA alone, there are over two million previous cases of the disease and other 1.4 million new cases reported every year. Thus about one percent of the total population are victims of the disease. Thus making it mostly common non-viral disease not only in the USA but also in the other countries of the world. Women have about 3% more than men to contract the disease while at the same they make up 60% of the total victims of the disease which is only 40%. About 30% of the population are at very high risk of being infected with the disease according to health reports (Bouchemal et al., 2017).
In conclusion, Trichomoniasis is one of the most common sexually transmitted infection which is commonly not known to people. However, a significant number of the populations are a victim of the disease. Although the disease has no serious direct implication on the health of victims, it has been linked to causing serious diseases such as cancer in different reproductive parts. Therefore there is a need for preventive measures to be taken against the spread of the disease.
1. Bouchemal, K., Bories, C., & Loiseau, P. M. (2017). Strategies for prevention and treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis infections. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 30(3), 811–825.
2. Chernesky, M., Gaydos, C., Marrazzo, J., Hobbs, M., & Schwebke, J. (2015). O10. 5 Rapid diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis by testing vaginal swabs in an isothermal helicase-dependent amplivue® assay. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
3. Kissinger, P. (2015). Trichomonas vaginalis a review of epidemiologic, clinical and treatment issues. BMC Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 307.